The whole world is talking about yoga principles these days. In the west people are increasingly casting a keen eye on relaxation and yoga meditation, essentials of the ancient Indian principles of yoga. No wonder Indians have kept the tradition alive and well; as a therapy they know that there's nothing better than good old yoga. The word yoga means union, though a more literal equivalent is the English yoke. In fact, the words yoga and yoke have the same Sanskrit root. The knowledge of yoga meditation comes to us originally from the Vedas.
The idea then developed and branched into a whole lot of other texts and philosophies. The yoga that is most well known today is the Hatha Yoga of bodily positions called asanas. Through a perfection of the practice, one is supposed to reach a higher state of being, a state that is in union with brahmana or the Absolute (also the Hindu concept of godhead). In the ancient times our rishis (Hindu ascetics) practiced yoga to achieve self-realization, a necessary step towards spiritual progress. For them yoga was the way to liberation (moksha) from the material world. Advanced yogis (experts on yoga) even claimed to acquire extraordinary powers, such as how to vanish into thin air!
Anyway, other religions like Buddhism and Jainism, too, absorbed the techniques of yoga. Today millions are turning to this age-old system because of its therapeutic goodness. If you have a little patience, you can cure yourself of most ills without pills. and with time, such bodily discipline also influences consciousness and concentration, silencing the wandering Cain in your mind forever.Medical research has endorsed the benefits of yoga postures on the body. Yoga is just the remedy for ailments like a poor spine and painful joints.
The stretching and compressing during these asanas, and the alteration of the body's orientation and centre of gravity generate piezoelectricity (electricity caused by pressure) in the body tissues.A regular practice of yoga exercises regulates the growth, maintenance and strengthening of body tissues. In fact, the whole body metabolism is stimulated and the body's healing powers improved.
The history of meditation is as old as the history of religion. The relation between religion and meditation is such that one cannot be without the other. Meditation is fundamental to religion. Still, a time came when meditation and religion got separated. I have mntioned about it in my tract Treapanth-Prabodh Some people thought that there is no tradition of meditation in Jainism. I do not agree with that view. We find meditation interwoven in the life incidents of the Jain Tirthankaras and religious teachers.
Innumerable ideas of the Tirthankaras in meditative poses can be found. However it is not without reason that despite so many evidences available with regard to meditation, such an impression had stuck deep roots. Jainism had to pass through a phase when under special circumstances, the monks and the nuns probably did not find time for meditation. It is a natural human tendency that once a particular practice ceases to be part of the daily routine, one does not feel inclined to reinstate it. I can be said that [probably that was the case with regard to meditation.
Meditation has all along been the essential part of the daily routine of a religious person. The Jain Agamas have ordained that the monks should do meditation during the second prahara of the day and night. They should spend four praharas in studying the sacred books, two praharas in meditation and the remaining two in prahas in eating and sleeping. Thus, their routine for the eight preharas were decided. The question can be raises if it is possible to meditate continuously for one prahara. It is an accepted belief that the mind of the person who is not free from Karma cannot remain steady beyond anfarmultion.
How is meditation possible unless the mind is steady? In this context it is necessary to discuss the meaning of the word mediation. One of the meanings of the word mediation is control of the activities of the mind, speech and body. Another meaning of meditation is steadying the mind on the subject of concentration. There can be regulation of time in this case as well. The term meditation is (dhyan) is derived etymologically from the dhyaim meaning reflect. The subject for reflection root can be the same and it can also change.
From this view, meditation can also be linked with the continuous process of contemplation on the meaning. If we look at it from this point of view. Meditation for one prahara does not seem to be incongruous or impossible. The first prahara is devoted to the study of the Agamas (scriptures), the second prahara is meant for deep contemplation on the meaning of the Agamas.
Some people say that they cannot meditate, because their mind is unsteady. Unsteadiness of the mind is an obstruction in meditation. Acharya Somaprabha has written thus to clarify this point:"If any person wants to pursue religion by becoming cruel, wants to acquire fame by vicious means, wants to acquire wealth nor remaining indolent, wants to write poetry without having the genius for it, wants to become an ascetic without controlling the senses and showing compassion, wants to seriously study the scriptures without the requisite intelligence, wants to see things without the eyes and wants to meditate on them when his mind is unsteady cannot succeed. Similarly, the person who desires his beatitude by giving up the contact with the virtuous people can never succeed."
To think that the person whose mind is unsteady cannot meditate in spite of his ardent wish. And for the person whose mind is steady, meditation is not necessary, is a one-sided view. Only the person who takes on-sided view, would say that he would not meditate till his mind becomes steady. Two friends went to the river to bathe. Both of them slipped in the mud. He drifted with the flow of the river.
His companion held him and pulled him out. Coming on the bank, he said, "I would not step in water till I learn swimming "But can anyone learn to swim without stepping in water? What a contradiction! When people say that they would meditate only when their mind becomes steady, they are also talking in similar contradictory terms. It is necessary to practice meditation exactly because the mind is unsteady. Without that practice, the mind would not become steady. From this point of view, everything should be considered in relative terms. Acharya Somaprabha's statement too is relative. Only when this is realized it is possible to know the essential aspect of things.
There are many methods of meditation in vogue. The Jains have their own independent tradition. Dhyanayoga is important too in the present age. We can hardly keep count of the meditation centres functioning in India and other countries. There are more people from the younger generation, who go in for training in meditation. The attainments of meditation are amazing too. However inspite of such attainments, there are very few people who practice meditation regularly. There can be found not only amoung the householders but among the ascetics too.
Some ascetics may think that they need not meditate, since they atre ascetics. It is for the householder to meditate, whose mind constantly wanders in many directions. The householder may be arrogant because of his power or wealth or this influence. He may say: 'I am in such a high position. My business is so widespread. I have my say in everything that happens in society.'
In my view, meditation should be considered necessary for everyone, whether he is an ascetic, or householder. If concentration of mind can be considered unavoidable to make the military movements more efficient, why should it not be so for living a disciplined and organised life?Ib can proclaim in clear terms that the individula who doew not take the training in meditation, who does not practice meditation would remain incomplete, inefficient and would not be able to attain any important goal in life.
Some people are interested in learning to practice meditation, but they are not able to develop faith in meditation. A child went on turning the egg of a peacock, wondering if the young one of the peacock would emerge from it. He could not get the young one of the peacock. But the child who waited without any doubt in his mind, got it. If one develops deep faith in meditation and if it is combined with firm resolve then unsteadiness of the mind can be eliminated. The individual with firm resolve can turn what is impossible into possible. Achary Bhikshu accepted the challenge of desath and chose to follow the path of purity.
But if there us no endeavour along with the resolve, the resolve loses value. The combination of faith, resolve and endeavour can turn even a dessert lsand into a blooming garden.The method of meditation can be discoveres, it can be carried forward, but it cabnnot be made widespread. The method which is lofty is also less widespread to that extent. The ideal position is not where everyone would be able to reach. Only the lucky ones, who have faith, who have firmly resolved and who are keen to endeavour would be able to reach the ideal position. In spite of all these, unless one finds a true guru, the path of meditation cannot be followed.
I know some people who take keen interest in meditation. They spend time in meditation. They are eager to go to every meditation camp. But they are not able to concentrate only on one particular method. They do not know which method is appropriate and which is not appropriate. And the alternatives make them restless. Guidance from a guru is necessary to make the mind function uninterrupted.
The method of prekshadhyan is as scientific as it is simple. It is my wish that everyone should learn it. But the truth is that all our efforts, we should not make all the people take to meditation. For learning to meditate, one requires to have the steady mind Jit Muni.It happened in the year 187 of the Vikram Era. Fourteen year old Jit Muni was seated in the market place writing something . A play was being staged right in front of him. The children and other people, young and old, were seeing that play. An old man in the audience was staring at Jit Muni ho was busy writing in the market place. When the play was over, that old man said, "The foundation of the terapanth has become older by a hundred years."
The people standing near him were amazed. "How is that?"The old man said, "When a young ascetic belonging to that Sangh could sit so still and during the two hours of the staging of the play did not look in that direction even once, not the slightest harm can be brought to that Sangh."The pursuit of meditation is difficult for the people whose mind always wanders, who are interested in light hearted and curious things, who are eager to see the serials on Doordarshan or who give immense importance to sleep.
If one wants to practice meditation, these outside interests will have to be abandoned. The day that is done, people would start taking interest in meditation. Once the ecstacy of meditation is experienced, all things in the world become uninteresting.